I was working with some kids who wanted to boost their arithmetic skills and so together we thought through the following project.

We wanted to beef up skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. One way to do it was to teach the computer how to make up an exercise, then ask the user to solve the problem, and check the response with the actual answer.

To analyze the problem we wrote out some sample exercises such as

To make up one of these problems the computer has to generate two of the numbers and compute the third.

We decided to start with addition.

Addition

Logo is equipped with a random number generator. It takes one input and then selects a number from 0 up to the input.

make “number1 random 11

:number1 is then 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10
and then we make the second number.

make “number2 random 11

Get the answer

Add the two numbers and save the result.

Make “result :num1 + :num2

So we make a procedure that prepares the three numbers and then states the problem, asks for answer, checks it against the correct one, and keeps asking the same question until the user responds with the right answer.

In fooling around we found that two procedures were needed. One procedure makes the three numbers. It then turns the job over to an assistant (subprocedure) to ask the question and insist on getting the right answer.

to add
make "num1 random 11
make "num2 random 11
make "result :num1 + :num2
add2
end

to add2
question (se :num1 [+ x =] :result char 13 [What is x?])
if answer = :num2 [stop]
add2
end

Try it, it works.

Multiplication

Have you ever thought of the relationship between addition and multiplication? Well, in writing these procedures we saw that the procedure for multiplying was very similar to addition. The real difference lay in how the procedure computed the result.

to multiply
make “num1 random 11
make “num2 random 11
make "result :num1 * :num2
multiply2
end

to multiply2
question (se :num1 [* x =] :result char 13 [What is x?])
if answer = :num2 [stop]
multiply2
end

Try it, it works.

But wait a minute! we noticed that add2 and multiply2 do similar jobs. From a programming point of view the only difference is whether a + sign or a * sign is printed. Is it possible to make one procedure work for both add and multiply? We could then use that procedure for subtracting and dividing.

So we make a new procedure which takes an input. The input is either + x or * x .

to check :phrase
question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])
if answer = :num2 [stop]
check :phrase
end

and edit add and multiply.

to add
make "num1 random 11
make "num2 random 11
make "result :num1 + :num2
check [ + x =]
end

to multiply
make “num1 random 11
make “num2 random 11
make "result :num1 * :num2
check [* x =]
end

They work but I now see another fix I’d like.

Math: A Superprocedure

We want a superprocedure which calls on add and multiply and eventually subtract and divide.

to math
add
multiply
end

So now on to subtraction.

Subtraction

In this case we wanted to make sure x is always positive. There are different ways to do this. I chose is to get num1 by adding result and num2. Thus subtracting num1

To subtract
make “result random 11
make “num2 random 11
make "num1 :result + :num2
check [ - x =]
end

Try it.

Division

Dividing uses the same technique as the subtract procedure. The divisor is computed from the other two numbers. The difference here is that we wanted to avoid the possibility of 0 being any of the numbers. This is accomplished by adding 1 to the random number.

to divide
make “result 1 + random 10
make “num2 1 + random 10
make “num1 :result * :num2
check [/ x =]
end

Making the program better

Setting Limits

The basics check out. But the poor user is forced to keep trying until arriving at the right answer. Limits were needed. I chose to move on after the third incorrect answer.

To accomplish this we had to set up a counter initially set to 1.

make “times 1

The check procedure would then have the job of keeping tabs on times and then either stopping the procedure or adding 1 to times and asking again for the answer.

Here is the new check procedure.

to check :phrase
question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])

if answer = :num2 [stop]
if :times > 2 [stop]
make “times :times + 1
check :phrase
end

Providing Visual Feedback

For visuals we, of course, use turtles. We played around and made several shapes or costumes including the words yes, no, answer and =. To display this much information we used three turtles. Next, we wanted to show the correct answer and so I drew the ten digits.

As we were debugging, we decided to plan for answers being as large as 9999. Since we used a turtle for each digit in the answer we needed four turtles. Altogether we used seven turtles. The tricky thing here was to hide and show turtles at the right times.

Numbers are words and we can take them apart using first and butfirst etc. By putting the digits in shape cells 1 through 10 and placing 0 in cell 10 we could say setsh first :number. Of course, we would have to see if first :number were 0. Then the command would be setsh 10.

Showit displays the answer digits from left to right. Here is Showit with comments.

to showit :number :places ; :places is the list of the four answer turtles.
ask [t2 t3][ st] ; shows answer =
if empty? :number [wait 20 ask [t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7] [ht] stop] ; display the answer for 2
seconds, then hide all
tto first :places ;display a digit
ifelse 0 = first :number [setsh 10 st][setsh first :number st]
showit bf :number bf :places ;do the same thing for the next digit
end

The Whole Thing

To math
setup
Add
Subtract
Multiply
divide
end

to add
make "times 1
make "num1 random 11
make "num2 random 11
make "result :num1 + :num2
check [ + x =]
end

to multiply
make "times 1
make “num1 random 11
make “num2 random 11
make "result :num1 * :num2
check [* x =]
end

To subtract
make "times 1
make “result random 11
make “num2 random 11
make "num1 :result + :num2
check [ - x =]
end

to divide :result :num2
make "times 1
make “result 1 + random 10
make “num2 1 + random 10
make "num1 :result * :num2
check[ / x =]
end

The check procedure looks complicated because the if instructions are long. I put yes in cell 17 and no in cell 18.

to check :phrase
question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])
if empty? Answer [stop]
if :num2 = answer [t1, setsh 17 st showit :num2 [t4 t5 t6 t7] stop]
if :times > 2 [t1, setsh 18 st showit :num2 [t4 t5 t6 t7] wait 20 stop]
make "times :times + 1
t1, setsh 18 st wait 10 ht
check :phrase
end

to showit :number :places
ask [t2 t3][ st]
if empty? :number [wait 20 ask [t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7] [ht] stop]
tto first :places
ifelse 0 = first :number [setsh 10 st][setsh first :number st]
showit bf :number bf :places
end

The setup procedure is only to restore the seven turtles to their original positions and looks.

Sometimes display the math sentence as
Alternate the number of exercises presented.
Keep track of the hard ones.
Change the visual feedback. And so on.

## Making a Math Drill and Practice Program.

I was working with some kids who wanted to boost their arithmetic skills and so together we thought through the following project.

We wanted to beef up skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. One way to do it was to teach the computer how to make up an exercise, then ask the user to solve the problem, and check the response with the actual answer.

To analyze the problem we wrote out some sample exercises such as

To make up one of these problems the computer has to generate two of the numbers and compute the third.

We decided to start with addition.

## Addition

Logo is equipped with a random number generator. It takes one input and then selects a number from 0 up to the input.make “number1 random 11

:number1 is then 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10

and then we make the second number.

make “number2 random 11

## Get the answer

Add the two numbers and save the result.

Make “result :num1 + :num2

So we make a procedure that prepares the three numbers and then states the problem, asks for answer, checks it against the correct one, and keeps asking the same question until the user responds with the right answer.

In fooling around we found that two procedures were needed. One procedure makes the three numbers. It then turns the job over to an assistant (subprocedure) to ask the question and insist on getting the right answer.

to add

make "num1 random 11

make "num2 random 11

make "result :num1 + :num2

add2

end

to add2

question (se :num1 [+ x =] :result char 13 [What is x?])

if answer = :num2 [stop]

add2

end

Try it, it works.

## Multiplication

Have you ever thought of the relationship between addition and multiplication? Well, in writing these procedures we saw that the procedure for multiplying was very similar to addition. The real difference lay in how the procedure computed the result.to multiply

make “num1 random 11

make “num2 random 11

make "result :num1 * :num2

multiply2

end

to multiply2

question (se :num1 [* x =] :result char 13 [What is x?])

if answer = :num2 [stop]

multiply2

end

Try it, it works.

But wait a minute! we noticed that add2 and multiply2 do similar jobs. From a programming point of view the only difference is whether a + sign or a * sign is printed. Is it possible to make one procedure work for both add and multiply? We could then use that procedure for subtracting and dividing.

So we make a new procedure which takes an input. The input is either + x or * x .

to check :phrase

question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])

if answer = :num2 [stop]

check :phrase

end

and edit add and multiply.

to add

make "num1 random 11

make "num2 random 11

make "result :num1 + :num2

check [ + x =]

end

to multiply

make “num1 random 11

make “num2 random 11

make "result :num1 * :num2

check [* x =]

end

They work but I now see another fix I’d like.

## Math: A Superprocedure

We want a superprocedure which calls on add and multiply and eventually subtract and divide.

to math

add

multiply

end

So now on to subtraction.

## Subtraction

In this case we wanted to make sure x is always positive. There are different ways to do this. I chose is to get num1 by adding result and num2. Thus subtracting num1To subtract

make “result random 11

make “num2 random 11

make "num1 :result + :num2

check [ - x =]

end

Try it.

## Division

Dividing uses the same technique as the subtract procedure. The divisor is computed from the other two numbers. The difference here is that we wanted to avoid the possibility of 0 being any of the numbers. This is accomplished by adding 1 to the random number.to divide

make “result 1 + random 10

make “num2 1 + random 10

make “num1 :result * :num2

check [/ x =]

end

## Making the program better

## Setting Limits

The basics check out. But the poor user is forced to keep trying until arriving at the right answer. Limits were needed. I chose to move on after the third incorrect answer.To accomplish this we had to set up a counter initially set to 1.

make “times 1

The check procedure would then have the job of keeping tabs on times and then either stopping the procedure or adding 1 to times and asking again for the answer.

Here is the new check procedure.

to check :phrase

question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])

if answer = :num2 [stop]

if :times > 2 [stop]

make “times :times + 1

check :phrase

end

## Providing Visual Feedback

For visuals we, of course, use turtles. We played around and made several shapes or costumes including the words yes, no, answer and =. To display this much information we used three turtles. Next, we wanted to show the correct answer and so I drew the ten digits.As we were debugging, we decided to plan for answers being as large as 9999. Since we used a turtle for each digit in the answer we needed four turtles. Altogether we used seven turtles. The tricky thing here was to hide and show turtles at the right times.

Numbers are words and we can take them apart using first and butfirst etc. By putting the digits in shape cells 1 through 10 and placing 0 in cell 10 we could say setsh first :number. Of course, we would have to see if first :number were 0. Then the command would be setsh 10.

Showit displays the answer digits from left to right. Here is Showit with comments.

to showit :number :places ; :places is the list of the four answer turtles.

ask [t2 t3][ st] ; shows answer =

if empty? :number [wait 20 ask [t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7] [ht] stop] ; display the answer for 2

seconds, then hide all

tto first :places ;display a digit

ifelse 0 = first :number [setsh 10 st][setsh first :number st]

showit bf :number bf :places ;do the same thing for the next digit

end

## The Whole Thing

To math

setup

Add

Subtract

Multiply

divide

end

to add

make "times 1

make "num1 random 11

make "num2 random 11

make "result :num1 + :num2

check [ + x =]

end

to multiply

make "times 1

make “num1 random 11

make “num2 random 11

make "result :num1 * :num2

check [* x =]

end

To subtract

make "times 1

make “result random 11

make “num2 random 11

make "num1 :result + :num2

check [ - x =]

end

to divide :result :num2

make "times 1

make “result 1 + random 10

make “num2 1 + random 10

make "num1 :result * :num2

check[ / x =]

end

The check procedure looks complicated because the if instructions are long. I put yes in cell 17 and no in cell 18.

to check :phrase

question (se :num1 :phrase :result char 13 [What is x?])

if empty? Answer [stop]

if :num2 = answer [t1, setsh 17 st showit :num2 [t4 t5 t6 t7] stop]

if :times > 2 [t1, setsh 18 st showit :num2 [t4 t5 t6 t7] wait 20 stop]

make "times :times + 1

t1, setsh 18 st wait 10 ht

check :phrase

end

to showit :number :places

ask [t2 t3][ st]

if empty? :number [wait 20 ask [t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7] [ht] stop]

tto first :places

ifelse 0 = first :number [setsh 10 st][setsh first :number st]

showit bf :number bf :places

end

The setup procedure is only to restore the seven turtles to their original positions and looks.

to setup

ask [t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7][ht sety 130]

t1, setx -250

t2, setx 50 setsh 19

t3, setx 85

setsh 20

t4, setx 170

t5, setx 200

t6, setx 230

t7, setx 260

end

## More Changes

Sometimes display the math sentence asAlternate the number of exercises presented.

Keep track of the hard ones.

Change the visual feedback. And so on.